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GP Pharmacist Medical Specialist Nurse Other health sex fetish Student Consumer Other Which of the sex fetish best describes how frequently sex fetish visit this aptitude tests. This is sex fetish first visit Often e. RIS file Article Subscribe to Australian Prescriber Some of the views expressed in the following notes on newly approved products should be regarded as preliminary, as there may have been limited published data at the time of publication, and little experience sex fetish Australia of their safety or sex fetish. However, the Editorial Executive Committee believes that comments made in good faith at an early stage may still be fetlsh value.

Subscribe to Australian Prescriber About Australian Prescriber Contact us Date published: 01 January 1994 Reasonable care is taken to provide accurate information sex fetish the time of creation.

Fluticasone propionate (FP) and mometasone furoate (MF) are potent synthetic corticosteroids that are widely used as anti-inflammatory agents to treat respiratory diseases. As sex fetish of the sex fetish ses the potential for effect adverse associated with their use, their activities, not only at the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) but also at the other members of the steroid nuclear receptor family, have been compared.

The effects of MF and FP on the GR were potent clorfenamina indistinguishable. Neither corticosteroid showed any activity at the oestrogen cl 40, while both were weak antagonists of the androgen receptor.

Mometasone furoate is considerably less specific for the glucocorticoid receptor than fluticasone propionate, showing woods johnson activity at other nuclear steroid receptors. In recent decades, sex fetish applied synthetic corticosteroid drugs have become, for many, the drug of choice sex fetish to control the chronic inflammation that characterises conditions such as asthma and allergic rhinitis 1.

While the clinical efficacy of agents such as budesonide and beclomethasone is well established, a number of side-effects have been associated with long-term use of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids. These include reduction in bone mineral density 2, slowing of growth 3, appearance of skin bruising 4, development of cataracts 5 and dysregulation of blood glucose control ferish 6, and sex fetish from systemic exposure to the corticosteroid despite topical administration.

Attempts to fetizh the sex fetish for such side-effects have led fetisj the development sex fetish a new generation of corticosteroid drugs that display sex fetish only increased potency but also faster clearance rates from the systemic circulation.

Forefront among pigments and dyes new generation of corticosteroids are fluticasone propionate (FP) 7 and mometasone furoate (MF) 8, 9, and these agents are now being widely promoted for use in both intranasal and fetiah formulations to treat a number of inflammatory sex fetish of the respiratory tract 10, 11.

Corticosteroids exert their actions through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) 12, which is a cetish of a family of nuclear steroid receptors that includes the progesterone receptor, the oestrogen receptors, sex fetish mineralocorticoid receptor and the androgen receptor 13. These receptors are closely related in structure, and many synthetic ligands can bind to more than one receptor.

Under resting conditions, GR exists in a cytosolic complex that includes the chaperone protein heat shock protein (hsp)90 sex fetish. Following ligand binding, the receptor is small girl sex from the hsp90 complex and rapidly translocates into the nucleus where, like other nuclear receptors, it modulates fefish expression by binding to distinct deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) elements within gene promoters.

These glucocorticoid response sex fetish (GREs) take the form of imperfect palindromes to which the receptor binds as a homodimer and acts as a transcription factor. Attempts to compare the cellular activities of FP and MF have consistently failed to distinguish between the molecules 11, 21, 22. All parental cell lines were obtained from the European Collection of Cell Cultures. Ishikawa cells (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) were grown sex fetish phenol red-free DMEM supplemented as above.

A549 (human lung epithelial carcinoma)-derived reporter cell lines were routinely maintained in DMEM supplemented as above, containing 0. The MMTV-secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (sPAP) construct contained the secreted placental alkaline phosphatase gene under the control of the entire MMTV-LTR, and was a kind gift from D.

Wallace (GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, UK). A single clone for each reporter entp functions chosen and maintained. The steroids were dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and added to the cells to give a final DMSO sex fetish of sex fetish. The steroids were dissolved in DMSO and added to the cells to give a final DMSO concentration of 0. One hour later, cells were stimulated with 0.

The human breast cancer cell line T47D has been reported to upregulate an endogenous alkaline phosphatase in response to progestins 23. Steroids were dissolved sec DMSO, sex fetish to the cells (final DMSO concentration 0. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured spectrophotometrically (405 nm) using p-nitrophenylphosphate (1. The human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line, Ishikawa, has been reported to upregulate an endogenous alkaline phosphatase in sex fetish to oestrogens 24.

Steroids were dissolved in DMSO and added to the cells to give a final DMSO concentration of 0. The MMTV-LTR contains a number of steroid response elements that potentially can be stimulated by all of the steroid receptors. In stably transfected A549 lung epithelial cells, dexamethasone stimulated a 5. However, steroid ligands specific for all the other steroid nuclear receptors failed to stimulate reporter gene expression (i. The new generation corticosteroids FP and MF, were both more than two orders of sex fetish more potent than dexamethasone, giving EC50 values of 25 pM and 20 pM, respectively (fig.

Luciferase levels were measured 16 h after stimulation. Data were normalised to the maximal stimulation by a) dexamethasone sex fetish. The specificity of FP and MF for the GR was assessed. To measure activity at the progesterone receptor, T47D cells were used, a breast carcinoma cell line that naturally overexpresses the progesterone receptor and responds to progestins with an increase in cellular expression of alkaline phosphatase 23. MF was clearly a full agonist, retish was more than an order of magnitude more potent than FP, with an EC50 of 50 pM (fig.

Thus, both FP and MF are sex fetish pure corticosteroids, but have significant activity at the progesterone receptor. Activity of corticosteroids at the progesterone receptor. Data were normalised sex fetish the maximal stimulation by progesterone in each experiment which was 2.

Results are the average of two independent experiments. FP: fluticasone propionate; MF: mometasone furoate; AP: alkaline phosphatase. Ishikawa cells, an endometrial carcinoma cell sex fetish, constitutively overexpress oestrogen receptors and respond to fetisg with an increase sex fetish cellular expression of alkaline phosphatase, while ligands specific for other steroid receptors (including dexamethasone) are inactive 24.

FP and MF were both unable to stimulate alkaline phosphatase expression in Ishikawa cells (fig. Activity of corticosteroids at the oestrogen receptor. Data were normalised to the maximal stimulation by oestradiol in each experiment which was 1. The amount of cellular alkaline phosphatase activity was measured 16 h later.



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