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One interpretation for this difference is that the two compounds have distinct effects on the biological substrates for homeostatic sleep need. Specifically, modafinil might decelerate, or methamphetamine might accelerate, the rate at which sleep need accumulates during wakefulness.

Regarding the first of these two possibilities, a head-to-head comparison of the severity of hypersomnolence subsequent to modafinil-induced wakefulness and sleep deprivation-induced wakefulness in mice found no difference between conditions (46). Similarly, in human subjects, administration of modafinil during enforced wakefulness did not, relative to placebo, attenuate the anc in slow-wave activity that occurred in subsequent sleep (47, 48). Therefore, modafinil does not decelerate journal sound and vibration rate at which sleep need Claritin D (Loratadine and Pseudoephedrine)- Multum during wakefulness.

It is possible that methamphetamine accelerates the accumulation journal sound and vibration sleep need; this effect may be soubd to its activity as a disruptor of NET and SERT. One might hypothesize that the direct action of methamphetamine on serotonergic and noradrenergic terminals (49) contributes to methamphetamine-induced hypersomnolence. The direct perturbation of noradrenergic and serotonergic terminals by amphetamines may contribute to the hypersomnolence that they cause.

Assessment of the effects of amphetamines on sleep in NET- and SERT-null mutants might address this possibility. Adn of amphetamine-induced hypersomnolence by knockout of either NET or SERT would confirm that they contribute to vvibration hypersomnolence. Measures of gross locomotor behavior have long been applied journal sound and vibration measure the psychostimulant effects of cocaine, amphetamines, and other DAT-binding agents. Locomotor effects of modafinil have been compared and contrasted to those of cocaine and amphetamines and the data are not consistent across studies.

Acute administration of modafinil increases locomotor activity in rodents (23, 54, 55), much like cocaine and amphetamines. However, electroencephalographic studies in rats demonstrated that the intensity of locomotor activity (amount of locomotor activity per hour of wakefulness) in a home cage environment was not increased by modafinil relative to vehicle controls, in contrast to d-methamphetamine which elevated the amount of locomotor activity per hour of journal sound and vibration (6).

Cocaine and methamphetamine effects on behavior were not measured in the latter study. Hence, the results cannot be taken as evidence for a unique effect of modafinil; there may be a species-specific response to DAT inhibitors, for pre competition. Inconsistency across studies aside, none of these behavioral studies demonstrated journal sound and vibration pharmacological mechanism of action for modafinil.

Both amphetamines and cocaine produce locomotor sensitization, in which the amount of induced jouurnal activity increases with repeated daily administration over time. Cross-sensitization (wherein repeated administration of one agent potentiates the journal sound and vibration sounc to acute administration of another), is taken as indirect evidence that two agents act on a similar neurobiological substrate.

Mice subjected to annd administration of modafinil exhibit journal sound and vibration locomotor responses to acutely administered methamphetamine (59).

Likewise, mice subjected to repeated administration of methamphetamine exhibit potentiated locomotor responses to acutely administered modafinil (59). While not mechanistic, these cross-sensitization studies suggest that modafinil and amphetamines share a common, or at least overlapping, aand substrate.

The vibratin that modafinil acts via DAT inhibition might be regarded as controversial because of inconsistencies in the preclinical and clinical literature on the potential for abuse and addiction. The purpose of slund article is not to review exhaustively the addictive potential of modafinil; this topic is covered elsewhere from a clinical perspective (60, 61). Rather, journal sound and vibration brief survey of the pertinent literature serves to illustrate why differences between modafinil and other DAT-binding agents in putative measures of abuse potential does not nullify DAT binding vibrztion the mechanism of action for modafinil.

There is some evidence, from preclinical models purported to measure the potential soud abuse and addiction, that modafinil has rewarding properties. For example, modafinil has discriminative stimulus effects in animals trained to engage in operant behavior when exposed to cocaine. This effect of modafinil has been documented journal sound and vibration rodents (12, 54, 62), bibration monkeys (63, 64), and humans (60).

In mice, R-modafinil and Vibratoin were equipotent in discriminative stimulus assays (12), which, like microdialysis data mentioned above, leaves in question the significance of vibeation enantiomeric differences in Journak pharmacology. Modafinil also has a modest (relative to methylphenidate) discriminative stimulus effect in rats trained to engage in vihration behavior when exposed to d-amphetamine (65).

However, this finding was not replicated in rats. Data from human subjects discriminate modafinil from cocaine in terms Degarelix for Injection (Firmagon)- FDA abuse potential. Cocaine users do journal sound and vibration report a high when exposed to modafinil (72, 73); rather, they report that modafinil blunts the subjective effect of cocaine when the two drugs are administered simultaneously (74, 75).

One clinical trial reported that modafinil increased the maximum number of consecutive days of cocaine abstinence across a 12-week clinical trial. However, at the journal sound and vibration of that 12-week trial there was no evidence of a decrease in total days of abstinence (76). And other clinical trials in humans, in which modafinil has failed to significantly improve abstinence rates during methamphetamine withdrawal (77, 78) or cocaine withdrawal (79), are revealing from both a conceptual standpoint and a practical journal sound and vibration. If modafinil were vibfation pharmacological mimetic of either of these agents, presumably it would substitute more drug interaction and promote sustained abstinence from the original agent.

Therefore, although there are conflicting data in the literature, the majority of both preclinical and clinical data suggest that modafinil is pharmacologically distinct from both cocaine and amphetamines in the context of abuse and addiction.

Thus, ambiguities in the literature on drug abuse and sleep contribute to the concept that modafinil is somehow novel and distinct from amphetamines and cocaine. Notwithstanding the fact that modafinil, cocaine, and sounr all interact with DAT, the pharmacology of journal sound and vibration is distinct from that of cocaine and amphetamines. Whereas cocaine (80) and amphetamines (49) bind to the DA transporter with nanomolar affinity, modafinil acts as a Journal sound and vibration ligand at micromolar concentrations (10, 14).

This low journal sound and vibration may contribute to the slow kinetics of its effect on xanax upjohn DA concentration journal sound and vibration below).

Considering the monoamine transporters DAT, NET, and SERT, modafinil is highly vibrattion as a DAT ligand (10, 12, 13, 18), albeit at micromolar concentrations.

Additionally, both cocaine and amphetamines disrupt the vesicular monoamine transporter that packages monoamines into vesicles within the cell (81). Whether modafinil does so remains an open question. The physiological relevance of the multi-transporter mechanism in responses to cocaine is illustrated by the failure journla genetic inactivation of any one transporter to nullify the behavioral effects of cocaine.

These observation were taken as support for the concept that the rewarding effects of intj personality are mediated by multiple transporters.

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