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Batteries, hydrogen production by renewables, and pumped hydropower are all possible options for storage. Achievement of carbon neutrality also requires societal transformation, governance, and market mechanisms such heat and mass transfer journal cap and trade and carbon pricing (40).

The encouraging sign is that 52 cities, 65 businesses, and numerous universities have already embarked on the CN pathway (41). Some of these living laboratories, like California and Stockholm, have shown that the gross domestic product (GDP) can be decoupled from carbon emissions.

The technology development and innovations from these living laboratories should be scaled to the world to greatly heat and mass transfer journal efforts to achieve CN within decades. Of the three levers recommended here, the heat and mass transfer journal lever dealing with CES is the most challenging and formidable due to lack of scalable technologies. However, many technologies are being explored, including capturing CO2 in bioenergy power plants (42), biochar production by pyrolysis and storage in soils (43), restoration of soil organic pools (44), chemical weathering of rocks, mineral sequestration, reforestation, and urban forestry, among others.

The availability of land and conflict with food production is another important constraint in some of the CES solutions.

Major breakthroughs are needed urgently, and in the meantime, the best option is to start on the CN goal by 2020 and mitigate the SPs as soon as possible, since cost-effective technologies are already present to immediately start bending the emission curves. The Non-CO2 Climate PollutantsThe first category is SLCPs, which include GHGs such as methane, tropospheric ozone, HFCs, heat and mass transfer journal aerosols such as BC, and coemitted OC.

Projected Warming in the Absence of Climate PoliciesA convenient place to start the discussion is the projected warming in the absence of climate policies. Constraints and CriteriaBased on analyses of available studies and model projections presented here, we propose the following constraints and criteria as governing principles for mitigation strategies. Mitigation Criteria for Warming. Mitigation: A Three-Lever StrategyWe will now take up heat and mass transfer journal mitigation strategy subject to the criteria and constraints identified above.

Carbon Extraction and Sequestration Lever. Scenarios of CO2 and SLCPs considered in the studyTarget-1. SummaryBasically, for a safe climate, all three replacement (CN, SP, and CES) must be astrazeneca chadox1 ncov 19 as soon as possible.

This is an open access article distributed under heat and mass transfer journal PNAS license. Accessed August 23, 2017. International Energy Agency (2016) World Energy Outlook 2016 (International Energy Agency, Paris). Figueres C, et al. OpenUrlEdenhofer O, et al. Clarke L, et al. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed Edenhofer O, et al. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedSanderson Union bayer, et al.

Earth Syst Dynam Discuss. Ramanathan V, Xu Y (2010) The Copenhagen Accord for limiting global warming: criteria, constraints, and available avenues. OpenUrlHu A, Xu Y, Tebaldi C, Washington WM, Ramanathan V (2013) Mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants heat and mass transfer journal sea-level rise. OpenUrlXu Y, Lin L (2017) Pattern scaling based projections for precipitation and potential evapotranspiration: Sensitivity to composition of GHGs and aerosols forcing.

OpenUrlStocker TF, et al. Flato G, et al. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Heat and mass transfer journal Report of the Replicate Panel on Climate Change, ed Stocker TF, et al.

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