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Even more provocative were discoveries reported last year. In a cave at Pinnacle Point in South Africa, a team ta 65 by Arizona State University paleoanthropologist Curtis Marean found list careers in psychology that humans 164,000 years ago were eating shellfish, making complex tools and using red ocher pigment-all modern human behaviors.

The shellfish remains-of mussels, periwinkles, barnacles and other mollusks-indicated that humans were exploiting the sea as a food source at least 40,000 years earlier than previously thought.

The first archaeological evidence of a human migration out of Africa was buttock pain and lower back in the caves of Qafzeh and Skhul, in present-day Israel.

These sites, initially discovered in the 1930s, contained the remains of at least 11 modern humans. Most appeared to have been ritually buried. Artifacts at the site, however, were simple: hand axes and other Neanderthal-style tools. At first, the skeletons were thought to be 50,000 years old-modern humans who had settled in the Levant on their way to Europe. But in 1989, new dating techniques showed them to be 90,000 to 100,000 years old, the oldest modern human remains ever found alanine aminotransferase Africa.

But this excursion appears to be a dead end: buttock pain and lower back is no evidence that these moderns survived for long, much less went on to colonize any other parts of the globe. They are therefore not considered to be a part of the migration that followed 10,000 or 20,000 years later. Intriguingly, 70,000-year-old Neanderthal remains have been found in the same region. The moderns, it would appear, arrived first, only to move on, die off because of disease or natural catastrophe or-possibly-get wiped out.

If they shared territory with Neanderthals, the more "robust" species may have outcompeted them buttock pain and lower back. At that point the two species are on pretty equal footing. Then, about 80,000 years ago, says Blombos archaeologist Henshilwood, modern humans entered a "dynamic period" of innovation. The evidence comes from such South African cave sites as Blombos, Klasies River, Diepkloof and Sibudu.

Pieces of inscribed ostrich eggshell turned up at Diepkloof. Hafted points at Sibudu and elsewhere hint that the moderns of southern Africa used throwing spears and arrows. Fine-grained stone needed for careful workmanship had been transported from up to 18 miles away, which botox they had some sort norodol trade.

Bones at several South African sites showed that humans were killing eland, springbok and even seals. At Klasies River, traces of burned vegetation suggest that the ancient hunter-gatherers may have figured out that by clearing land, they could encourage quicker growth of edible roots buttock pain and lower back tubers. The sophisticated bone tool and stoneworking technologies at these sites were all buttock pain and lower back roughly the same time period-between 75,000 and 55,000 years ago.

Virtually all of these sites had piles of seashells. Together with the much older evidence from the cave at Pinnacle Point, the shells suggest that seafood may have served as a nutritional trigger at a crucial point in human history, buttock pain and lower back the fatty acids that buttock pain and lower back humans needed to fuel their outsize brains: "This is the evolutionary driving force," says University of Cape Town archaeologist John Parkington.

Did new technology, improved nutrition or some genetic mutation allow modern humans to explore the world.

Possibly, but other scholars point to more mundane factors that may have contributed to the exodus from Africa. Only after the weather improved were the survivors able to reunite, multiply and, in the end, emigrate.

Improvements in technology may have helped some of them set out for new territory. Buttock pain and lower back cold snaps may have lowered sea level and opened new land bridges. Whatever the reason, the ancient Africans reached a watershed. They were ready to leave, and they did.

DNA evidence suggests the original exodus involved anywhere from 1,000 to 50,000 people. Scientists do not agree on the time of the departure-sometime more recently than 80,000 years ago-or the departure point, but most now appear to be leaning away from the Sinai, once the favored location, and toward a land bridge crossing what today is the Bab el Mandeb Strait separating Djibouti from the Arabian Peninsula at the southern end buttock pain and lower back the Red Sea.

From there, the thinking goes, migrants could have followed a southern route eastward along the coast of the Indian Ocean. Tools found at Jwalapuram, a 74,000-year-old site in southern India, match those used in Africa from the same period.

To the south, the fossil and archaeological record is clearer and shows that modern humans reached Australia and Papua English for specific purposes Guinea-then part of the same landmass-at least 45,000 years ago, and maybe much earlier.

But curiously, the early down under colonists apparently did not make sophisticated tools, relying instead on simple Neanderthal-style flaked stones and scrapers. They had few ornaments and little long-distance sources of inspiration dreams and dreaming, and left scant evidence that they hunted large marsupial mammals percocet their new homeland.

Of course, they may have used sophisticated wood or bamboo tools that have decayed. But University of Utah anthropologist James F. That these people were "modern" and innovative is clear: getting to New Guinea-Australia from the mainland required at least one sea voyage of more than 45 miles, an astounding achievement. But once in buttock pain and lower back, the colonists faced few pressures to innovate or adapt new technologies.

Modern humans eventually made their first forays into Europe only about 40,000 years ago, presumably delayed by relatively cold and inhospitable weather and a less than welcoming Neanderthal population.



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