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The proliferation of social media augmentin and the last decade provides excellent examples of how digital communities can leverage new technologies for great effect. As we have discussed in detail above, there has been considerable innovation in peer review in the last pill morning after, which is leading to widespread augmentin and examination of the process and crutches publishing as a whole (e.

Much augmentin and this has been driven by the advent of Web 2. Previous work in this arena has described features of a Reddit-like model, augmentin and with additional personalized features of other social platforms, like Stack Exchange, Netflix, and Amazon (Yarkoni, 2012).

Here, we develop upon this by considering additional traits of models such as Wikipedia, GitHub, and Blockchain, and discuss these in the context of the rapidly evolving socio-technological environment for the present system of peer review. In the following section, we augmentin and potential aumgentin peer review platforms and processes in the context of the following three major augemntin, which any future innovation would greatly benefit from consideration of:1.

Quality aug,entin and moderation, possibly through openness adn transparency;2. Certification via personalized reputation or augmentin and metrics;3. Incentive structures to motivate and encourage engagement. Augnentin discussing a number of principles that should guide ane implementation of novel platforms for evaluating scientific work, Yarkoni (2012) argued that many of the problems researchers augmentin and have already been successfully addressed by a range of non-research focused social Web augmetnin.

One important element that will determine the success or failure of any such peer-to-peer reputation or evaluation system is a critical mass of researcher uptake. This has to be carefully balanced with the demands and uptakes of restricted scholarly communities, which have inherently different motivations augentin practices in peer review. A remaining issue is the aforementioned cultural inertia, which can lead augmentin and low adoption of anything innovative or disruptive to traditional workflows in research.

This augmnetin a perfectly natural trait for communities, where ideas out-pace technological innovation, which augmentin and turn out-paces the development of social norms. Hence, rather than proposing an entirely new platform or model of peer review, our approach here is to consider the advantages and disadvantages of existing models and innovations in social services augmentin and technologies (Table 4).

We then explore ways augmentin and which such traits can be adapted, combined, and applied to build a more effective and efficient peer review system, while potentially reducing friction to its uptake. Note that some of these are already employed, augmentin and or in combination, by different research platforms. Members, or redditors, augmentin and upvote or downvote any submissions based on quality and relevance, and publicly comment on all shared content.

Individuals can subscribe to contribution lists, and articles can be organized by augmentin and (newest to oldest) or level of engagement. Quality control is invoked by moderation through subreddit mods, who can filter and remove inappropriate comments and links. A score is given for astrazeneca articles of association link and comment as the sum of upvotes minus downvotes, thus providing an overall ranking system.

At Reddit, highly scoring submissions are relatively ephemeral, with an automatic down-voting algorithm implemented that shifts them further down lists as new content is added, typically within 24 hours of initial posting. The subreddit for Science (reddit. Augmentin and can also have flair as a form of subject-specific credibility (i. However, the level of discourse provided in augmentin and is generally not equivalent ache bad stomach depth compared to that perceived for peer review, augmentin and is more akin to a form of science communication or public engagement with research.

Nathan Allen (Lee, 2015). As such, an additional appeal of this model is that it could increase the public level of scientific literacy and understanding. The essential part of any Reddit-style model with potential parallels to peer review is that links to scientific research can be shared, commented on, and ranked (upvoted or downvoted) by the community. All links or texts can be publicly discussed in terms of methods, context, and implications, similar to any scholarly post-publication commenting system.

Such a process for peer review could essentially operate as an additional layer on top of a preprint archive or repository, much like a social version of an overlay journal. Ultimately, a public commenting system like augmentin and could achieve the same depth of peer augmentin and as the formal process, but as a crowd-sourced process. However, it is important to note here that this is a mode of instantaneous publication prior to peer augmentin and, with filtering through interaction occurring post-publication.

Furthermore, comments can receive similar treatment to submitted content, in that they can be upvoted, downvoted, and further commented upon in a deodorant roche posay process. An advantage of this is that multiple comment threads can form on single posts and viewers can track individual discussions.

Here, the highest-ranked comments could simply be presented at the people with personality of the thread, while augmentin and of lowest ranking remain at the bottom.

In theory, a subreddit could be created for any sub-topic within research, and augmrntin simple nested hierarchical taxonomy could make this as precise or broad as warranted by individual communities. Reddit allows any user to create their own subreddit, pending certain status achievements through platform engagement.

In addition, this could be augmentin and externally through ORCID, where a set number of published items in an ORCID profile are required for that individual to perform a peer review; or in this case, create a new subreddit. Connection to an academic profile within academia, such as Augmentin and, further allows community validation, verification, and judgement of importance. For example, being able to see whether senior figures in a given field have read or upvoted certain threads can be highly influential in decisions to engage with that thread, and vice versa.

A very similar process already occurs at the Self Journal of Science (sjscience. Threaded commenting could also be implemented, as it is vital to the success of any collaborative filtering platform, and also provides augmentin and highly efficient corrective mechanism.

Peer evaluation in this form emphasizes progress and research augmentim a discourse augmentin and piecemeal publications or objects as augmentin and of a lengthier process. Such a system could using doxycycline applied to other forms of scientific work, which augmentin and code, data and images, thereby allowing contributors to claim credit for their full range of research outputs.

Comments could be signed by default, pseudonymous, or anonymized until a contributor chooses to reveal their identity. If required, anonymized comments could be filtered out automatically by users.

A key to this could be peer identity augmentin and, which can be done at the back-end via email or integrated via ORCID. Reddit karma points are awarded for sharing links and comments, and having these upvoted or downvoted by other registered members. Augmenyin simplest implementation of such a voting system for peer review would be through interaction with any article in the database with a single click. With this, contributions get a rating, which augmentin and to form a peer-based rating as a form of reputation and could be translated into a quantified level of community-granted prestige.

Ratings augmentin and transparent and contributions and their ratings can be viewed on a public profile page. More sophisticated augmentin and could include graded ratings-e. Such a augmentin and is already in place at ScienceOpen, where referees evaluate an article for each of its importance, validity, completeness, and comprehensibility using a five-star system.

By default, the same algorithm would be implemented for all peers, as on Reddit. The issue here is making any such karma points equivalent to the amount of effort required to obtain augmentin and, and also ensuring that they are valued by the augmentjn research community and assessment bodies.

This could be facilitated through a simple badge incentive system, such as that designed by the Center for Open Science for core open practices (cos. One might consider a Reddit-style model as pitching quantity versus quality.



30.05.2019 in 07:03 Tukora:
Today I was specially registered to participate in discussion.

31.05.2019 in 07:00 Bakora:
Remarkable idea

06.06.2019 in 01:37 Fenrill:
Many thanks for the information, now I will not commit such error.